1. Aldosterone synthesis and secretion are primarily regulated by the (Points : 2)

2. A surgical individual just arrived on the unit from the postanesthesia care unit. This person’s respirations are 4 per minute and shallow. As the nurse calls for assistance, the person suddenly feels jittery and breathing quickens. Which of the following feedback loops is operating for the nurse in this situation? (Points : 2)

3. What effect does aldosterone have on fluid and electrolyte imbalances? (Points : 2)

4. What effect does hyperphosphatemia have on other electrolytes? (Points : 2)

5. Where is oxytocin synthesized? (Points : 2)

6. Which mineral is needed for the synthesis of thyroid hormones? (Points : 2)

7. The portion of the pituitary that secretes oxytocin is the _____ pituitary. (Points : 2)

8. When insulin binds its receptors on muscle cells, an increase in glucose uptake by the muscle cells is the result. This is an example of a _____ effect by a hormone. (Points : 2)

9. Which of the following hormones acts on its target cell via a second messenger? (Points : 2)

10. Target cells for parathyroid hormone (PTH) are located in the (Points : 2)

11. Which hormone is involved in the regulation of serum calcium levels? (Points : 2)

12. A person who has experienced physiologic stresses will have increased levels of which hormone? (Points : 2)

13. The first lab test that indicates type 1 diabetes is causing the development of diabetic nephropathy is (Points : 2)

14. A deficiency of which of the following may result in hypothyroidism? (Points : 2)

15. Diagnosing a thyroid carcinoma is best done with (Points : 2)

16. The effects of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) include solute (Points : 2)

17. Which of the following clinical manifestations is not common to both diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNKS)? (Points : 2)

18. The signs of thyroid crisis resulting from Graves disease include (Points : 2)

19. What causes the microvascular complications of clients with diabetes mellitus? (Points : 2)

20. A man with a closed head injury has a urine output of 6 to 8 L/day. Electrolytes are within normal limits, but his antidiuretic hormone (ADH) level is low. Although he has had no intake for 4 hours, there is no change in his polyuria. These are indications of (Points : 2)

21. Amenorrhea, galactorrhea, hirsutism, and osteopenia are each caused by a (Points : 2)

22. The most common cause of hypoparathyroidism is (Points : 2)

23. The level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in Graves disease is usually (Points : 2)

24. The most probable cause of low serum calcium following a thyroidectomy is (Points : 2)

25. Hyperpituitarism is generally caused by (Points : 2)

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