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Mohamed Abdelgader
This review paper will discuss a tooth bending fatigue failures and surface contact
fatigue failures in gears. A gear is a machine component designed to transfer force
and signal from one mechanical unit to another. Various types of gears have been
established to achieve different purposes, the most common of these being helical
gears, spur gears, straight and spiral bevel gears, and hypoid gears. The features of
these various gear types are discussed in most mechanical design. Many styles of
gear failure have been known, for example, fatigue, impact, wear or plastic
deformation. One of the most common reasons of gear failure is tooth bending
Surface contact fatigue is the most common style of gear failure. This mode of
failure clues to crack initiation at or close the contact surface, and might lead to
damage changing in level from microscopic pitting to severe spalling. The metal
removed from the surface in some cases arrives the machine system. Furthermore,
the pits shaped on the damaged surface lead to the creation of stress concentrations
and help as initiation sites for other styles of gear failure, tooth bending fatigue. In
this review paper, many types of contact fatigue damage are reviewed using real
examples, the cause, and ways stooping the damage are discussed.
The first section, The Introduction will discuss the general information about the
gears and some lectures review the fatigue failures in gears and the history of some
cases caused by failures of gears. Second, some case studies for a tooth bending
fatigue failures for different types of gears. Third, various types of contact fatigue
damage will be discussed in this section. The conclusion will be the last section
telling us briefly what is discussed in this review paper. Then the references will be
Key words: gears failures; contact surface; gears tooth

University of Central Florida
Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Page 1
EML 6233 – Fundamentals of Fatigue Analysis
In lieu of a final exam, a portion of the final grade will be based on a final project. The
paper will serve to gauge overall mastery of the subject of fatigue, its sub-topics, and
recent advances facilitating its evolution. This final project consists of two portions: a
proposal and a final paper. Each is described below.
Proposal: Write a short introduction that proposes the topic of your final paper. This
document should take the form of an abstract of a technical or review paper. This
prelude should at minimum answer several key questions (e.g., why is this topic
important, has there been much attention addressed to this topic in the past or recently,
how will the final paper address this topic). It should give a clear indication of the nature
and range of the results that are expected in the final paper content. Other guidelines
are as follows:
• Formatting – The document must be single-spaced, typed, and no longer than
one page. The title and author should be listed first and up to five keywords can
be included last. Avoid including figures.
• Due Date – On or before October 8th, 2015 at 10:00 A.M.
• Submission – Submit via WebCourses. Please include your name in the filename of
the attachment (e.g., KnightG_proposal.pdf).
Final Paper:
Content for the paper can either be derived from other sources and/or completely
original (the latter is preferred). Sources should be cited. Listed in order of decreasing
reliability, some sources are as follows: textbooks, books, edited books, reference texts,
manufacturer’s catalogs, journal articles, conference proceedings, magazines and
newspapers, the internet, and personal communications. It is strongly suggested that the
instructor comments based on the proposal should be implemented in the final paper.
Other guidelines are as follows:
• Formatting – The document should be in the form of a manuscript to be
submitted to a journal that frequently includes technical works on fatigue (see list
below). The document must be typed and double-spaced. There is no page
limit. The title, author, abstract, and keywords should be given first. The main body
of the paper should consist of various sections (including but not limited to:
Introduction, Methods, Results, Conclusions, and References). Relevant tables
and figures should be included at the end and not within the main body.
• Submission Window – Between Tuesday, December 8th, 2015 at 10:00 A.M. and
Thursday, December 10th, 2015 at 10:00 A.M.
• Submission – WebCourses (Note: A single Adobe PDF or MS Word DOC are
preferred). Resubmissions of final papers are allowed and encouraged up to the
final due date and time (above).
University of Central Florida
Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Page 2
Topic Selection: The instructor is available to help with the selection of topics, but the final
decision is the responsibility of the author. A general rule of thumb is that if an author
selects a topic near to his/her own interest, then he/she will develop a paper having
greater depth. Final projects can take either of the following forms:
• Review Paper – a critical review of papers related to one specific area. Identify
what is well-known, somewhat known, and not known at all. Provide a detailed
outline of avenues for future study.
• Numerical Paper – implementation of a model (or an array of models) in a solver
package (Matlab, FEA, etc.). Thoroughly characterize trends in the results.
Suggest avenues for future study.
• Experimental Paper – conduct experiments or use experimental results gathered
elsewhere. Thoroughly characterize specimens or trends in the results. Suggest a
new fatigue model or provide new constants for an existing model.
• Analytical Paper – extend an existing (or develop an) analytical model(s).
Exercise your model(s) and thoroughly characterize trends in the results. Suggest
avenues to prove or disprove your model(s).
• Failure Paper – focus on a component that you have observed to fail via fatigue.
A variety of techniques are typically used to analyze the component.
A book report, a chapter summary, or a review of a small number of papers is not a
good submission.
Example Topics:
A Critical Review of the Fatigue Behavior of Brittle Materials
Limitations of the Fatigue Cycle Counting Techniques
Accounting for Strain Rate Dependence in Fatigue Life Prediction
Failure Analysis of Fatigue Cracked Brazed Shaft
Contact Fatigue Behavior of Dental Materials
Applicability of Fatigue Life Approaches to Polymers
Prediction of Multiaxial Fatigue in Bent Helical Springs
Standard Practices for Determining Fatigue Behavior of Shape Memory Alloys
Methods for Non-linear Accumulation of Fatigue Damage
Hysteresis Modeling of Magnetic Materials
Journals on Fatigue: Technical papers on fatigue can be found in a number of scholarly
journals. Common scholarly journals for fatigue articles are as follows (ordered by
decreasing popularity): International Journal Of Fatigue, Key Engineering Materials,
Materials Science And Engineering A, Fatigue And Fracture Of Engineering Materials And
Structures, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Engineering Failure Analysis, Materials
Science And Technology, Materials And Design, Metallurgical And Materials Transactions
A: Physical Metallurgy And Materials Science, Wear, Journal Of Materials Science,
Composite Structures, Scripta Materialia, Surface And Coatings Technology, Acta
University of Central Florida
Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Page 3
Materialia, Dental Materials, Welding In The World, Theoretical And Applied Fracture
Mechanics, Composites Part A: Applied Science And Manufacturing, Journal Of
Materials Processing Technology, Journal Of Nuclear Materials, Journal Of Constructional
Steel Research, Materials Transactions, Journal Of Pressure Vessel Technology,
Transactions Of The ASME, Applied Physics Letters, Nuclear Engineering And Design,
Journal Of ASTM International, International Journal Of Materials And Product
Technology, Composites Science And Technology, Engineering Structures, Journal Of
Materials Research, Journal Of Sound And Vibration, Journal Of Bridge Engineering,
Journal Of Biomechanics, International Journal Of Solids And Structures, Construction
And Building Materials, Journal Of Testing And Evaluation, Materials Characterization,
Journal Of Applied Physics, Strength Of Materials, International Journal Of Plasticity,
Journal Of The American Ceramic Society, Journal Of Materials In Civil Engineering,
International Journal Of Fracture, Microelectronics Reliability, Tribology International,
Journal Of Engineering Materials And Technology, Transactions Of The ASME, Journal Of
Reinforced Plastics And Composites, Journal Of Composite Materials, Journal Of Alloys
And Compounds, Journal Of Electronic Packaging, Transactions Of The ASME Materials
Science, Journal Of Materials Science: Materials In Electronics, Journal Of Materials
Science: Materials In Medicine, Smart Materials And Structures, Polymer Testing, Journal
Of Applied Polymer Science, and more.





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