Answer Critical Thinking Questions 1-3 for Chapter 18 on page 526 and Clinical Application Question 1-4 for Chapter 19 on page 557. Answers should be submitted in a word document with any associated references used. 

Answer Critical Thinking Questions 1-3 for Chapter 18 on page 526 and

1) What problem are associated with the use of live attenuated vaccines?

2) Many of the serological tests require a supply of antibodies against pathogens. For example, to test for Salmonella, anti-Salmonella antibodies are mixed with the unknown bacterium. How these antibodies obtained?

3) A test for antibodies against Treponema pallidum uses the antigen cardiolipin and patient’s serum (Suspected of having antibodies). Why do the antibodies react with cardiolipin? What is the disease? 

Clinical Application Question 1-4 for Chapter 19 on page 557

1) Fungal infections such as athlete’s foot are chronic. These fungi degrade skin Keratin but are not invasive and do not produce toxins. Why do you suppose that many of the symptoms of a fungal infection are due to hypersensitivity to the fungus?

2) After working in a mushroom farm for several months, a worker develops these hives, edema, and swelling lymph node

a) What do these symptoms indicate?

b) What mediators cause these symptoms?

c) How many sensitivities to a particular antigen be determined?

d) Other employees do not appear to have any immunological reactions. What could explain this?

(Hint: The allergen is conidiophores from molds growing in the mushroom farm)

3) Physicians administering live, attenuated mumps and measles vaccines prepared in chick embryos are instructed to have epinephrine available. Epinephrine will not treat these viral infections. What is the purpose of keeping this drug on hand?

4) A woman with blood type A+ once received a transfusion of AB+ blood. When she carried a type B+ fetus, the developed hemolytic disease of the newborn. Explain why this fetus developed this condition even though another type B+ fetus in a different type A+ mother was normal


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