Introduction to Nursing Knowledge and the Quantitative Research Critical Appraisal Process
After completing this module, you will be able to do the following:
- Identify commonly used sources of knowledge.
- Articulate the difference between internal and external evidence.
- Define terms relevant to quantitative research: Type I error, Type II error, reliability, validity, p-value, bias, clinical significance, statistical significance, null hypothesis and confidence interval.
- Identify critical appraisal questions asked when performing critical appraisals of quantitative studies conducted using the following research designs: case studies, case control studies, cohort studies, randomized control trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews.
- Conduct a critical appraisal of a quantitative research study.
This module identifies sources of nursing and healthcare knowledge and how to critically appraise knowledge for clinical decision making. The strength of scientific evidence is emphasized as a means to evaluate whether or not research is applicable for healthcare decision making. Both internal and external evidence are defined. The application of internal and external evidence for the implementation of evidence based practice and quality improvement projects in the clinical setting is discussed.
Quantitative research is defined as a means of determining how an intervention should be implemented. The critical appraisal of quantitative research studies is discussed in detail. Evidence appraisal questions focus on reliability, validity and applicability of the studies to clinical practice and decision making. Specific appraisal questions related to case studies, case-control studies, cohort studies, randomized control trials and systematic review quantitative research designs are identified. Bias, confounding results, effect size and confidence intervals are examined as issues influencing the quality of quantitative studies.
- Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt – Chapters 4 & 5
University Mission Goals:
- Demonstrates professional performance through research by using evidence-based research
- Professional Behavior/Ethics: Develop a personal values system and value-based behaviors that include the capacity to make and act upon ethical judgments
- Research and Evidence-Based Practice: Use research findings and other evidence in designing, implementing, and evaluating care that is multidimensional, high quality, cost-effective and leads to improved patient outcomes
- Describe the basic concepts, techniques, and methodologies underlying the research process and their application in the study of nursing problems.
- Use information technology to retrieve hierarchical levels of evidence that addresses clinical questions.
- Utilize effective critical thinking and written communication skills in the critique of research for applicability to nursing practice.
AACN Baccalaureate Essentials:
- Scholarship for evidence-based practice
- Inter-professional communication and collaboration for improving patient health outcomes
- Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice
IOM Core Competencies:
- Patient-centered care
- Evidence-based practice
- Quality improvement
Module 2: AssignmentRemember to submit your work following the file naming convention FirstInitial.LastName_M01.docx. For example, J.Smith_M01.docx. Remember that it is not necessary to manually type in the file extension; it will automatically append.Start by reading and following these instructions:1. Quickly skim the questions or assignment below and the assignment rubric to help you focus.2. Read the required chapter(s) of the textbook and any additional recommended resources. Some answers may require you to do additional research on the Internet or in other reference sources. Choose your sources carefully.3. Consider the discussion and the any insights you gained from it.4. Create your Assignment submission and be sure to cite your sources, use APA style as required, check your spelling.Assignment:Conduct a literature search to select a quantitative research study related to the problem identified in Module 1 and conduct an initial critical appraisal. Respond to the overview questions for the critical appraisal of quantitative studies, including:Is this quantitative research report a case study, case control study, cohort study, randomized control trial or systematic review?Where does the study fall in the hierarchy of evidence in terms of reliability and risk of bias?Why was the study done? (Define the problem and purpose.)Were the steps of the study clearly identified?What was the sample size?Are the measurements of major variables reliable and valid? Explain.How were the data analyzed?Were there any untoward events during the conduct of the study?How do the results fit with previous research in the area? (This may be reflected in the literature review.)What does this research mean to clinical practice?Additionally, be sure to include the rapid appraisal questions for the specific research design of the quantitative study that you have chosen. These can be found in Chapter 5 of the textbook (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2015).This critical appraisal should be written in complete sentences (not just a numbered list) using APA format.Provide a reference for the article according to APA format and a copy of the article.