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  Type of paper Essay (Any Type)
  Subject Nursing
  Number of pages 3
  Format of citation APA
  Number of cited resources  5
  Type of service  Writing
 

Learning  Resources Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on  the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials  section of your Syllabus. Required Readings Milstead, J. A. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th  ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. • Chapter 7, “Health Policy and Social Program Evaluation” (pp. 114-127)  In this chapter, the focus is on how nurses can participate in public  policy or program evaluation. It includes a summary of the methodologies  that can be used in evaluation and how to best communicate the results Craig, H. D. (2010). Caring enough to provide healthcare: An  organizational framework for the ethical delivery of healthcare among  aging patients. International Journal for Human Caring, 14(4), 27–30. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.   The author of this text investigates the ethical discussions surrounding  health care resource allocation among aging patients. The article  supplies an organizational decision-making model for health care  resource allocation among the aging. Crippen, D., & Barnato, A. E. (2011). The ethical implications of  health spending: Death and other expensive conditions. Journal of Law,  Medicine & Ethics, 39(2), 121–129. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.   This article analyzes the ethical considerations of health care  expenditure in the United States. The authors examine the particular  means of funding health care services, as well as the tradeoffs of  certain funding decisions. Goethals, S., Gastmans, C., & Dierckx de Casterle, B. (2010).  Nurses’ ethical reasoning and behaviour: A literature review.  International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(5), 635–650. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.   This article presents a literature review on nurses’ ethical practice  with regard to their processes of ethical reasoning and decision making.  The authors explore how nurses reason and act in ethically difficult  situations. Pavlish, C., Brown-Saltzman, K., Hersh, M., Shirk, M., & Rounkle, A.  (2011). Nursing priorities, actions, and regrets for ethical situations  in clinical practice. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(4), 385–395. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.   This article reviews the results of a survey to determine nursing  priorities and actions in ethically difficult situations. The authors  conclude that not enough evidence-based ethics actions have been  developed. Zomorodi, M., & Foley, B. J. (2009). The nature of advocacy vs.  paternalism in nursing: Clarifying the ‘thin line.’ Journal of Advanced  Nursing, 65(8), 1746–1752. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.   This article explores the concepts of advocacy and paternalism in  nursing. The authors utilize four case studies to compare the two  concepts.  American Nurses Association. (2012). Code of Ethics for Nurses.  Retrieved from  http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEthicsforNurses   The information on this site provides a framework and guide as to  standards of ethical and quality behavior.   Hayutin, A. M., Dietz, M., & Mitchell, L. (2010). New realities of  an older America. Retrieved from  http://www.nasuad.org/sites/nasuad/files/hcbs/files/199/9941/New_Realities_of_an_Older_America.pdf This report highlights the impending challenges that come with the  United States’ shifting demographics. In particular, the authors focus  on aging, diversity, housing, health, and personal finance.  Required Media Laureate Education (Producer). (2012a). Ethics and advocacy. Baltimore,  MD: Author.   Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 5 minutes.   Accessible player   ________________________________________ Discussion: Ethical Issues With an Aging Population According to the CDC, “in the United States, the proportion of the  population aged ˃65 years is projected to increase from 12.4% in 2000 to  19.6% in 2030,” (CDC, 2003, para. 2). Caring for this aging population  is going to be one of the greatest challenges facing the health care  industry. Not only will the number of individuals requiring care rise,  but so will the cost. As poignantly stated by Crippen and Barnato,  “unless we change the practice of medicine and reduce future costs, and  explicitly address the ethical dilemmas we face, there may come a time  when our kids simply cannot afford us” (2011, p. 128). In this Discussion, you will examine the ethical issues that the United  States and other nations must address when faced with the health care  challenges of an aging population. To prepare: • Consider the ethical aspects of health care and health policy for an  aging population. • Review the Hayutin, Dietz, and Mitchell report presented in the  Learning Resources. The authors pose the question, “What are the  economic consequences, now and for future generations of taxpayers if we  fail to adapt our policies to the changing reality of an older  population?” (p. 21). Consider how you would respond to this question.  In addition, reflect on the ethical decisions that arise when dispersing  limited funds. • Contemplate the impact of failing to adjust policy in accordance with  the changing reality of an older population. • Reflect on the ethical dilemmas that arise when determining  expenditures on end-of-life health care. By Day 3 Post an explanation of the ethical standards you believe should be used  in determining how resources should be allocated for an aging population  and end-of-life care. Then, provide an analysis of the ethical  challenges related to the preparation for the provision of such health  care.    Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses. By Day 6 Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one  or more of the following ways: • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background  information, evidence, or research using an in-text citation in APA  format. • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings,  synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives. • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the  classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library. • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research. • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or  after synthesizing multiple postings. • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights  or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence. Reference: Crippen, D., & Barnato, A. E. (2011). The ethical implications of  health spending: Death and other expensive conditions. Journal of Law,  Medicine & Ethics, 39(2), 121–129.  doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2011.00582.x


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