Women are more prone than men to experience UTIs, possibly because of  urethral irritation during sexual intercourse or because they have a  shorter urethra, making it easy for microorganism transmission  (Berkowitz, 2007).  Microorganisms mostly associated with a female  diagnosis would be E.Coli and microorganisms primarily related to a male  diagnosis would be proteus species.  Disorders with lower UTIs might  be, urethritis/dysuria, and cystitis. Diseases with upper UTIs might be,  renal, pyelonephritis, and renal abscess (Barkley, 2018).  Contributing  patient factors might be age, prior UTI history, pregnancy,  immunocompromised patients, urinary catheter usage, and poorly  controlled diabetes (Healthline, 2019).
Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnostic test for lower UTIs are urinalysis, esterase detection on  dipstick, and presence of nitrate by dipstick.  Treatment for lower UTIs  are ciprofloxacin, augmentin, bactrim (commonly), additionally  amoxicillin, macrobid, levaquin, monurol, and primsol maybe prescribed.   The preferred treatment course is 3-days instead of 7-day  to maximize  benefits and minimize treatment drawbacks (Barkley, 2018).
Diagnostic test for upper UTIs are ESR elevation, and white blood cell  casts appearing on urinalysis.  Treatment for upper UTIs is Bactrim,  Augmentin, Cipro, tobramycin, or gentamicin.  For patients with upper  UTIs experiencing nausea and vomiting, hospitalization may be necessary  (Barkley, 2018).

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