What effect does aldosterone have on fluid and electrolyte imbalances?

Question 1
2 / 2 pts
Target cells for parathyroid hormone (PTH) are located in the
thyroid gland.
smooth and skeletal muscles.
glomeruli of nephrons.
tubules of nephrons.
Question 2
2 / 2 pts
A surgical individual just arrived on the unit from the postanesthesia care unit. This person’s respirations are 4 per minute and shallow. As the nurse calls for assistance, the person suddenly feels jittery and breathing quickens. Which of the following feedback loops is operating for the nurse in this situation?
The central nervous system stimulates the hypothalamus to synthesize oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone, which are secreted by the posterior pituitary, activating uterine contraction and renal absorption of water.
The central nervous system directly stimulates the adrenal medulla to secrete epinephrine and stimulates hypothalamus-releasing factor, which acts on the anterior pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic-stimulating hormone (ACTH), stimulating the release of cortisol.
The central nervous system directly stimulates the release of insulin, which reduces blood glucose levels.
The central nervous system stimulates hypothalamus-releasing factor, which acts on the anterior pituitary gland to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and stimulates the release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
Question 3
2 / 2 pts
Hormones are effective communicators because they
are regularly synthesized in response to cellular and tissue activities.
increase their secretion in response to rising hormone levels.
are rapidly degraded once they enter the cell.
decrease their secretion in response to rising plasma hormone levels.
Question 4
2 / 2 pts
When insulin binds its receptors on muscle cells, an increase in glucose uptake by the muscle cells is the result. This is an example of a _____ effect by a hormone.
direct
pharmacologic
synergistic
permissive
Question 5
2 / 2 pts
What effect does aldosterone have on fluid and electrolyte imbalances?
It directly increases calcium reabsorption.
It directly increases sodium reabsorption.
It directly increases magnesium reabsorption.
It directly increases water reabsorption.
Question 6
2 / 2 pts
Which hormone is involved in the regulation of serum calcium levels?
Triiodothyronine (T3)
Thyroxine (T4)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Question 7
2 / 2 pts
Which of the following hormones acts on its target cell via a second messenger?
Testosterone
Thyroxine
Estrogen
Angiotensin II
Question 8
2 / 2 pts
what hormone or electrolyte imbalance slows down the rate of secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
Increased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Decreased serum magnesium levels
Decreased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Increased serum calcium levels
Question 9
2 / 2 pts
A person who has experienced physiologic stresses will have increased levels of which hormone?
Somatostatin
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Alpha endorphin
Thyroid hormones
Question 10
2 / 2 pts
Lipid-soluble hormone receptors are located
on the outer surface of the plasma membrane.
on the inner surface of the plasma membrane.
inside the plasma membrane in the cytoplasm.
inside the mitochondria.
Question 11
2 / 2 pts
What is the target tissue for prolactin-releasing factor (PRF)?
Anterior pituitary
Hypothalamus
Mammary glands
Posterior pituitary
Question 12
2 / 2 pts
Where is oxytocin synthesized?
Posterior pituitary
Paraventricular nuclei
Anterior pituitary
Hypothalamus
Question 13
2 / 2 pts
The level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in Graves disease is usually
high.
low.
normal.
in constant flux.
Question 14
2 / 2 pts
A person has acne, easy bruising, thin extremities, and truncal obesity. These clinical manifestations are indicative of which endocrine disorder?
Diabetes insipidus (DI)
Cushing disease
Hypoaldosteronism
Hyperthyroidism
Question 15
2 / 2 pts
The effects of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) include solute
dilution and water loss.
dilution and water retention.
retention and water retention.
retention and water loss.
Question 16
0 / 2 pts
Polyuria occurs with diabetes mellitus because of
chronic insulin resistance.
the formation of ketones.
an increase in antidiuretic hormone.
an elevation in serum glucose.
Question 17
2 / 2 pts
Which of the following clinical manifestations is not common to both diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNKS)?
Increased serum glucose
Glycosuria
Fluid loss
Kussmaul respirations
Question 18
2 / 2 pts
Diagnosing a thyroid carcinoma is best done with
fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
measurement of serum thyroid levels.
ultrasonography.
radioisotope scanning.
Question 19
2 / 2 pts
A man with a closed head injury has a urine output of 6 to 8 L/day. Electrolytes are within normal limits, but his antidiuretic hormone (ADH) level is low.Although he has had no intake for 4 hours, there is no change in his polyuria. These are indications of
neurogenic diabetes insipidus.
psychogenic polydipsia.
osmotically induced diuresis.
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).
Question 20
2 / 2 pts
Hyperpituitarism is generally caused by
hypothalamic hyposecretion.
a neurohypophysial tumor.
a pituitary adenoma.
autoimmune disorder of the pituitary.
Question 21
2 / 2 pts
The signs of thyroid crisis resulting from Graves disease include
constipation and lethargy.
bradycardia and bradypnea.
constipation with gastric distention.
hyperthermia and tachycardia.
Question 22
2 / 2 pts
Which disorder is caused by hypersecretion of the growth hormone (GH) in adults?
Cushing syndrome
Myxedema
Acromegaly
Giantism
Question 23
2 / 2 pts
The cause of neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) is related to an organic lesion of the
anterior pituitary.
renal tubules.
thalamus.
posterior pituitary.
Question 24
2 / 2 pts
The most probable cause of low serum calcium following a thyroidectomy is
hypothyroidism caused by lack of thyroid replacement.
hypoparathyroidism caused by surgical injury.
hyperparathyroidism secondary to Graves disease.
myxedema secondary to surgery.
Question 25
2 / 2 pts
What causes the microvascular complications of clients with diabetes mellitus?
The capillaries contain plaques of lipids that obstruct blood flow.
Fibrous plaques form from the proliferation of subendothelial smooth muscle of arteries.
The capillary basement membranes thicken and there is endothelial cell hyperplasia.
There is increased pressure within capillaries as a result of the elevated glucose attracting water.


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