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What effects do exercise and body position have on renal blood flow?

Question 1
2 / 2 pts
Examination of the throat in a child demonstrating signs and symptoms of acute epiglottitis may contribute to which life-threatening complication?
Retropharyngeal abscess
Laryngospasms
Rupturing of the tonsils
Gagging induced aspiration
Question 2
2 / 2 pts
Causes of hyperkalemia include:
Hyperparathyroidism and malnutrition
Vomiting and diarrhea
Renal failure and Addison disease
Hyperaldosteronism and Cushing disease
Question 3
2 / 2 pts
What is the life span of an erythrocyte (in days)?
20 to 30
60 to 90
100 to 120
200 to 240
Question 4
2 / 2 pts
Which substance has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with tobacco smoking?
Alcohol
Steroids
Antihistamines
Antidepressants
Question 5
0 / 2 pts
Which hepatitis virus is known to be sexually transmitted?
A
B
C
D
Question 6
2 / 2 pts
What is the purpose of the spirometry measurement?
To evaluate the cause of hypoxia
To measure the volume and flow rate during forced expiration
To measures the gas diffusion rate at the alveolocapillary membrane
To determine pH and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations
Question 7
2 / 2 pts
What is the direct action of atrial natriuretic hormone?
Sodium retention
Sodium excretion
Water retention
Water excretion
Question 8
2 / 2 pts
What is the most important negative inotropic agent?
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
Acetylcholine
Dopamine
Question 9
2 / 2 pts
What is the primary cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?
Immature immune system
Small alveoli
Surfactant deficiency
Anemia
Question 10
2 / 2 pts
An individual is more susceptible to infections of mucous membranes when he or she has a seriously low level of which immunoglobulin antibody?
IgG
IgM
IgA
IgE
Question 11
2 / 2 pts
Low plasma albumin causes edema as a result of a reduction in which pressure?
Capillary hydrostatic
Interstitial hydrostatic
Plasma oncotic
Interstitial oncotic
Question 12
2 / 2 pts
Erythrocyte life span of less than 120 days, ineffective bone marrow response to erythropoietin, and altered iron metabolism describe the pathophysiologic characteristics of which type of anemia?
Aplastic
Sideroblastic
Anemia of chronic disease
Iron deficiency
Question 13
2 / 2 pts
An infant’s hemoglobin must fall below ___ g/dl before signs of pallor, tachycardia, and systolic murmurs occur.
11
9
7
5
Question 14
2 / 2 pts
What part of the kidney controls renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and renin secretion?
Macula densa
Visceral epithelium
Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)
Filtration slits
Question 15
2 / 2 pts
The lung is innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system via which nerve?
Vagus
Phrenic
Brachial
Pectoral
Question 16
2 / 2 pts
Which statement best describes a Schilling test?
Administration of radioactive cobalamin and the measurement of its excretion in the urine to test for vitamin B12 deficiency
Measurement of antigen-antibody immune complexes in the blood to test for hemolytic anemia
Measurement of serum ferritin and total iron-binding capacity in the blood to test for iron deficiency anemia
Administration of folate and measurement in 2 hours of its level in a blood sample to test for folic acid deficiency anemia.
Question 17
2 / 2 pts
Which disorder results in decreased erythrocytes and platelets with changes in leukocytes and has clinical manifestations of pallor, fatigue, petechiae, purpura, bleeding, and fever?
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA)
Question 18
2 / 2 pts
Which compensatory mechanism is spontaneously used by children diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot to relieve hypoxic spells?
Lying on their left side
Performing the Valsalva maneuver
Squatting
Hyperventilating
Question 19
2 / 2 pts
Which hormone is required for water to be reabsorbed in the distal tubule and collecting duct?
Antidiuretic hormone
Aldosterone
Cortisol
Adrenocorticotropin hormone
Question 20
2 / 2 pts
What is the fundamental physiologic manifestation of anemia?
Hypotension
Hyperesthesia
Hypoxia
Ischemia
Question 21
2 / 2 pts
Continuous increases in left ventricular filing pressures result in which disorder?
Mitral regurgitation
Mitral stenosis
Pulmonary edema
Jugular vein distention
Question 22
2 / 2 pts
Which T-lymphocyte phenotype is the key determinant of childhood asthma?
Cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 T-helper Th1 lymphocytes
CD4 T-helper Th2 lymphocytes
CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes
Memory T lymphocytes
Question 23
2 / 2 pts
Innervation of the bladder and internal urethral sphincter is supplied by which nerves?
Peripheral nerves
Parasympathetic fibers
Sympathetic nervous system
Tenth thoracic nerve roots
Question 24
2 / 2 pts
Which of the following is classified as a megaloblastic anemia?
Iron deficiency
Pernicious
Sideroblastic
Hemolytic
Question 25
2 / 2 pts
When an individual aspirates food particles, where would the nurse expect to hear decreased or absent breath sounds?
Left lung
Right lung
Trachea
Carina
Question 26
0 / 2 pts
The most common site of metastasis for a patient diagnosed with prostate cancer is which location?
Bones
Brain
Bladder
Kidney
Question 27
2 / 2 pts
Perceived stress elicits an emotional, anticipatory response that begins where?
Prefrontal cortex
Anterior pituitary
Limbic system
Hypothalamus
Question 28
2 / 2 pts
Which manifestations of vasoocclusive crisis are associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) in infants?
Atelectasis and pneumonia
Edema of the hands and feet
Stasis ulcers of the hands, ankles, and feet
Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly
Question 29
2 / 2 pts
Which cytokines initiate the production of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)?
IL–1 and IL-6
IL-2 and TNF-?
IFN and IL-12
TNF-ß and IL-4
Question 30
2 / 2 pts
The generation of clonal diversity occurs primarily during which phase of life?
Fetal
Neonatal
Infancy
Puberty
Question 31
2 / 2 pts
Where in the respiratory tract do the majority of foreign objects aspirated by children finally lodge?
Trachea
Left lung
Bronchus
Bronchioles
Question 32
2 / 2 pts
Which immunoglobulin (Ig) is present in childhood asthma?
IgM
IgG
IgE
IgA
Question 33
2 / 2 pts
Between which months of age does sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) most often occur?
0 and 1
2 and 4
5 and 6
6 and 7
Question 34
2 / 2 pts
Which complex (wave) represents the sum of all ventricular muscle cell depolarizations?
PRS
QRS
QT interval
P
Question 35
2 / 2 pts
When a patient has small, vesicular lesions that last between 10 and 20 days, which sexually transmitted infection is suspected?
Genital herpes
Chancroid
Syphilis
Chlamydia
Question 36
2 / 2 pts
What is the chief predisposing factor for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?
Low birth weight
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy
Premature birth
Smoking during pregnancy
Question 37
2 / 2 pts
Which statement concerning exotoxins is true?
Exotoxins are contained in cell walls of gram-negative bacteria.
Exotoxins are released during the lysis of bacteria.
Exotoxins are able to initiate the complement and coagulation cascades.
Exotoxins are released during bacterial growth.
Question 38
2 / 2 pts
Deficiencies in which element can produce depression of both B- and T-cell function?
Iron
Zinc
Iodine
Magnesium
Question 39
0 / 2 pts
The function of the foramen ovale in a fetus allows what to occur?
Right-to-left blood shunting
Left-to-right blood shunting
Blood flow from the umbilical cord
Blood flow to the lungs
Question 40
2 / 2 pts
Decreased lung compliance means that the lungs are demonstrating which characteristic?
Difficult deflation
Easy inflation
Stiffness
Inability to diffuse oxygen
Question 41
2 / 2 pts
If the sinoatrial (SA) node fails, then at what rate (depolarizations per minute) can the atri-oventricular (AV) node depolarize?
60 to 70
40 to 60
30 to 40
10 to 20
Question 42
2 / 2 pts
Which statement concerning benign tumors is true?
The resulting pain is severe.
Benign tumors are not encapsulated.
Benign tumors are fast growing.
The cells are well-differentiated.
Question 43
2 / 2 pts
How much urine accumulates in the bladder before the mechanoreceptors sense bladder fullness?
75 to 100 ml
100 to 150 ml
250 to 300 ml
350 to 400 ml
Question 44
2 / 2 pts
How high does the plasma glucose have to be before the threshold for glucose is achieved?
126 mg/dl
150 mg/dl
180 mg/dl
200 mg/dl
Question 45
0 / 2 pts
Apoptosis is a(an):
Normal mechanism for cells to self-destruct when growth is excessive
Antigrowth signal activated by the tumor-suppressor gene Rb
Mutation of cell growth stimulated by the TP53 gene
Transformation of cells from dysplasia to anaplasia
Question 46
0 / 2 pts
What is the role of collagen in the clotting process?
Initiates the clotting cascade.
Activates platelets.
Stimulates fibrin.
Deactivates fibrinogen.
Question 47
0 / 2 pts
Infants are most susceptible to significant losses in total body water because of an infant’s:
High body surface–to–body size ratio
Slow metabolic rate
Kidneys are not mature enough to counter fluid losses
Inability to communicate adequately when he or she is thirsty
Question 48
0 / 2 pts
What is the action of urodilatin?
Urodilatin causes vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles.
It causes vasodilation of the efferent arterioles.
Urodilatin inhibits antidiuretic hormone secretion.
It inhibits salt and water reabsorption.
Question 49
0 / 2 pts
Which cardiac chamber has the thinnest wall and why?
The right and left atria; they are low-pressure chambers that serve as storage units and conduits for blood.
The right and left atria; they are not directly involved in the preload, contractility, or afterload of the heart.
The left ventricle; the mean pressure of blood coming into this ventricle is from the lung, which has a low pressure.
The right ventricle; it pumps blood into the pulmonary capillaries, which have a lower pressure compared with the systemic circulation.
Question 50
0 / 2 pts
Research supports the premise that exercise has a probable impact on reducing the risk of which cancer?
Liver
Endometrial
Stomach
Colon
Question 51
0 / 2 pts
What is the trigone?
A smooth muscle that comprises the orifice of the ureter
The inner mucosal lining of the kidneys
A smooth triangular area between the openings of the two ureters and the urethra
One of the three divisions of the loop of Henle
Question 52
2 / 2 pts
What is the most abundant class of plasma protein?
Globulin
Albumin
Clotting factors
Complement proteins
Question 53
2 / 2 pts
The glomerular filtration rate is directly related to which factor?
Perfusion pressure in the glomerular capillaries
Diffusion rate in the renal cortex
Diffusion rate in the renal medulla
Glomerular active transport
Question 54
0 / 2 pts
Which cells have phagocytic properties similar to monocytes and contract like smooth muscles cells, thereby influencing the glomerular filtration rate?
Principle cells
Podocin cells
Mesangial cells
Intercalated cells
Question 55
0 / 2 pts
Why is nasal congestion a serious threat to young infants?
Infants are obligatory nose breathers.
Their noses are small in diameter.
Infants become dehydrated when mouth breathing.
Their epiglottis is proportionally greater than the epiglottis of an adult’s.
Question 56
2 / 2 pts
The risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) decreases for premature infants when they are born between how many weeks of gestation?
16 and 20
20 and 24
24 and 30
30 and 36
Question 57
2 / 2 pts
What is the ratio of coronary capillaries to cardiac muscle cells?
1:1 (one capillary per one muscle cell)
1:2 (one capillary per two muscle cells)
1:4 (one capillary per four muscle cells)
1:10 (one capillary per ten muscle cells)
Question 58
2 / 2 pts
A person with type O blood is considered to be the universal blood donor because type O blood contains which of the following?
No antigens
No antibodies
Both A and B antigens
Both A and B antibodies
Question 59
2 / 2 pts
The drug heparin acts in hemostasis by which processes?
Inhibiting thrombin and antithrombin III (AT-III)
Preventing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
Shortening the fibrin strands to retract the blood clot
Degrading the fibrin within blood clots
Question 60
2 / 2 pts
What effects do exercise and body position have on renal blood flow?
Exercise and body position activate renal parasympathetic neurons and cause mild vasoconstriction.
They activate renal sympathetic neurons and cause mild vasoconstriction.
Both activate renal parasympathetic neurons and cause mild vasodilation.
They activate renal sympathetic neurons and cause mild vasodilation.


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